In the paper Flexible Sketches and Inflexible Data Bases: Visual Communication, Conscription Devices, and Boundary Objects in Design Engineering, Kathryn Henderson writes about the role that sketches and drawings play in the work of mechanical engineers.
A conscription device is something that can be used to help recruit other people to get involved in a task: mechanical engineers collaborate using diagrams. These diagrams play such a strong role that the engineers find that they can’t work effectively without them. From the paper:
If a visual representation is not brought to a meeting of those involved with the design, someone will sketch a facsimile on a white board (present in all engineering conference rooms) when communication begins to falter, or a team member will leave the meeting to fetch the crucial drawings so group members will be able to understand one another.
A boundary object is an artifact that can be consumed by different stakeholders, who use the artifact for different purposes. Henderson uses the example of the depiction of a welded joint in a drawing, which has different meanings for the designer (support structure) than it does for someone working in the shop (labor required to do the weld). A shop worker might see the drawing and suggest a change that would save welds (and hence labor).:
Detail renderings are one of the tightly focused portions that make up the more flexible whole of a drawing set. For example, the depiction of a welded joint may stand for part of the support structure to the designer and stand for labor expended to those in the shop.If the designer consults with workers who suggest a formation that will save welds and then incorporates the advice, collective knowledge is captured in the design. One small part of the welders’ tacit knowledge comes to be represented visually in the drawing. Hence the flexibility of the sketch or drawing as a boundary object helps in enlisting the aid and knowledge of additional participants.
Because we software engineers don’t work in a visual medium, we don’t work from visual representations the way that mechanical engineers do. However, we still have a need to engage with other engineers to work with us, and we need to communicate with different stakeholders about the software that we build.
A few months ago, I wrote up a Google doc with a spec for some proposed new functionality for a system that I work on. It included scenario descriptions that illustrated how a user would interact with the system. I shared the doc out, and got a lot of feedback, some of it from potential users of the system who were looking for additional scenarios, and some from adjacent teams who were concerned about the potential misuse of the feature for unintended purposes.
This sort of Google doc does function like a conscription device and boundary object. Google makes it easy to add comments to a doc. Yes, comments don’t scale up well, but the ease of creating a comment makes Google docs effective as potential conscription devices. If you share the doc out, and comments are enabled, people will comment.
I also found that writing out scenarios, little narrative descriptions of people interacting with the system, made it easier for people to envision what using the system will be like, and so I consequently got feedback from different types of stakeholders.
My point here is not that scenarios written in Google docs are like mechanical engineering drawings: those are very different kinds of artifacts that play different roles. Rather, the point is that properties of an artifact can affect how people collaborate to get engineering work done. We probably don’t think of Google doc as a software engineering tool. But it can be an extremely powerful one.